GED Mathematical Reasoning: Tables and Pictographs

 

 Table

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  • A table may also be called a “chart” and displays data in an orderly fashion using rows and columns. Each row runs horizontally and is read across. Each column runs vertically and is read down.

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  • It is important to read the title and labels on any table or graph carefully before attempting to interpret the information it displays. The title of the table is:  Fruit Nutrition Chart. And notice that each row is labeled with a type of fruit and each column is labeled, too – indicating serving size and nutritional content.

 

Pictograph

  • A pictograph is another way to display data, which uses pictures or symbols. A key will tell you what each picture or symbol represents.

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  • Above pictograph displays information related to world population, which is the title of the graph. This graph uses the figure of a human to represent the population for each year stated along the left hand side. The key tells us that each figure represents one billion people.

 

Example 1

Consult the Fruit Nutrition Chart below to answer the following questions:

  1. How many grams of protein are contained in one serving of strawberries?
  2. How many calories are contained in one cup of blueberries?

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Referring to part (a) of our first example, to determine how many grams of protein are contained in one serving of strawberries we’ll find the intersection of the row labeled strawberries and the column labeled protein.

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As you can see – based on the table, there is one gram of protein in a serving of strawberries.

For part (b), the number of calories contained in one serving of blueberries can be found at the intersection of the row containing blueberries and the column containing calories.

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Based on the table, there are 83 calories in one cup of blueberries.

 

Example 2

Consult the World Population pictograph below to answer the following questions.

  1. What was the world population in the year 1650?
  2. What was the percent increase in population from the year 1975 to the year 1999?

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For Part a, to state the world population in the year 1650, we’ll first identify the year 1650 along the left hand side of the graph. If we look to the right of the year 1650, we see one-half of a human figure.

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If one human figure represents one billion people, then one-half of a human figure represents one-half a billion people. Therefore, the world population in the year 1650 was one-half a billion people.

Moving on to part (b), we’re being asked to find the percent increase in population between the year 1975 and the year 1999. First, let’s identify the population for the years 1975 and 1999.

To the right of the year 1975, there are 4 human figures, representing a population of 4 billon people.

To the right of the year 1999, there are six human figures, which represent a population of 6 billion people.

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To find the percent of increase, remember:  we must first find the amount of change and then divide that number by the original amount.

Percent\, of\, Change = \frac{Amount\, of\, Change}{Original\, Amount}

In this case, the amount of change is based on the difference between 4 billion and 6 billion.

Amount of Change = 6 billion – 4 billion = 2 billion

For the second step, we’ll divide the amount of change by the original amount, which is the population in 1975 or 4 billion people.

Percent\, of\, Change = \frac{2\, billion}{4\, billion} = 0.5

And we’ll change this decimal to a percent by moving the decimal point two places to the right and adding zero as a placeholder, making the final answer:  50%.

0.5 \rightarrow 50\%

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