GED Reasoning Through Language Arts Practice Test: Sentences
The English language contains sentences that are made up of several major parts. Many of these parts need to be in every sentence, while others do not. The major parts of a sentence are: subjects, predicates, direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nouns, predicate adjectives, and prepositional phrases.
The subject is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the predicate is the other). It usually comes first in the sentence to show either what the sentence is about or who/what performs the action. The subject is commonly a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase and may be one or several words.
Freddie went downtown to buy some shoes.
In this sentence, Freddie is performing the action. He went downtown so Freddie is the subject.
Bertram and Geraldo drove across town to the Berkshire mall.
In this sentence, Bertram and Geraldo are doing the action. They drove, so the subject is Bertram and Geraldo.
All sentences must have a subject. In the examples above, the subjects are explicitly stated. However, if I were to ask or order either subject to buy some shoes or drive to the mall, the subject would be implied.
Go downtown and buy some shoes.
Drive across town to the Berkshire mall.
In both these sentences, the subjects are assumed to be you, or the person to whom I’m speaking.
The verb in a sentence is called the predicate. Often, the predicate contains other information such as the action and or state of being. A predicate can be singular or compound. A compound predicates shows more than one action or state of being. For example, laughed and danced or fell and screamed are compound predicates
Abdul walked to the doctor to get an X-ray.
In this sentence, walked is the verb and shows action. All that follows gives additional information.
There are nouns in sentences that are not part of the subject. These are nouns are what or who receives the action, and are direct objects. The direct object is never the subject.
Jared threw the ball over the house.
In this sentence, ball is the receiver of the action threw
An indirect object is a noun that appears with a direct object in some sentences. An indirect object is who or what receives the direct object.
Nona gave the customer some change.
In this sentence, some change is what is given and the customer receives it.
When a sentence uses the verb to be, a predicate noun is often found. It is a noun that tells what the subject is.
Dishane is a lawyer.
Dishane is the subject, and lawyer tells us what Dishane is.
When a sentence uses a the verb to be, a predicate adjective is often found. It is an adjective that tells what the subject is like.
My brother was very kind when he came home.
My brother is the subject, and kind is what he was like.
Prepositional phrases appear in many sentences but are not essential. Prepositional phrases provide additional information and begin with a preposition and end with a noun. They may include adjectives and adverbs.
Francois rode the train to the beach.
The proposition is to, and the noun is beach.
We all walked home after school.
The preposition is after, and the noun is school.